Sudanese dating dating sites for lonely married people
Thus while the history of the use of perfumes is widely known, the processes and equipment used by perfumers remain obscure.
(Ref) So often in written recipes, techniques that are considered self-evident and common knowledge in the time period, is not recorded and thus becomes lost in time.
On Sunday 9 July 2011, South Sudan seceded from Sudan and became the world’s youngest country.
The conflict in Sudan has been well documented, but little attention has been paid to the crafts and arts of Sudan.
(Ref) The kingdom of Kerma, one of the world’s oldest civilizations, rose about 5,000 years ago out of a pastoral culture with the first settlements established by at least 7000 B. Kerma was known as Ta-Sety (“the Land of the Archers’ Bow”) to the ancient Egyptians. (Ref) Due to its geographical position, for the15 centuries that the Kerma civilization flourished it was an extraordinarily prosperous empire ruled by a series of powerful kings.
During this time Kerma established itself very successfully as a middle-man between sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt that controlled the flow of trade in luxury goods to Egyptian Pharaohs, which included gold, ivory, precious woods, wild animals, slaves and of especial interest to us aromatics.
Early writers expounded on how much wealth the Kushites attained from this trade by describing “fountains with the odor of violets,” and “prisoners fettered with gold chains.” (Ref) The great value placed on aromatics early in Sudan’s history can be seen in that already in the Middle Kerma period, grave goods of the kings included perfumed oils and unguents.
(Ref) “all goodly fragrant woods, heaps of myrrh-resin, with fresh myrrh trees, with ebony and pure ivory, green gold of Amu, cinnamon-wood, khesyt-wood, ahmut-incense, senter-incense, eye makeup, apes, monkeys, dogs, skins of the southern panther, and with natives and their children” An inscription from Hathsepsut´s expedition to Punt This area was also instrumental in the trading of cinnamon in ancient times.
The burning of incense to invoke spirits and to dispel negative influences appears throughout cultures and history of the world, whereas the use of perfume oils is traditionally used to make “holy,” or to anoint.The immigrant Arab culture and the neighboring cultures (mainly Egyptian and West African cultures) have strongly influenced Sudanese culture. The fabled kingdoms of Kerma and Kush (also referred to as Nubia), and many now also believe Punt (South-East Sudan – Beja lands) once rose and fell within the borders of Sudan.Their influences are especially evident in the North, West and East of the Sudan. Sudan emerged from some of the world’s oldest civilizations and served as a crossroad for others, namely ancient Egypt, Christian and Islamic civilizations. At one point, the kings of Kush ruled the entire Nile Valley from the Mediterranean Sea to the Highlands of Ethiopia.The cities Adule, Axum, Napatan, Meroe, Thebes and Carthage were the links in the chain.From Meroe to Memphis the most common object carved or painted in the temples was the incense censor.Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast.When exactly the trade between Southeast Asia and the southeastern coast of Africa began is still open to much debate, however the oldest archaeological remains of the domestic chicken (Galllus gallus) found in Tanzania may give us an indication; the remains dates back to 2,800 BCE.Both the domestic chicken and cinnamon originated in Southeast Asia.The earliest similar evidence in Egypt is not earlier than the New Kingdom period about 1,000 years later.Few people realize what a rich reservoir to the aromatic past Sudan is, and that Sudan once played a vital role in history of Perfumery and the trade of aromatics.Even today Sudan has a thriving aromatic culture with a unique way of making perfumes.