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Although the interventions are described in discrete categories, the individual interventions are part of a continuum of services available to victims and their families.
The interventions discussed in one section may therefore be relevant in other sections of the chapter and to interventions discussed in the chapters on legal and health care interventions.
Although treatment and prevention interventions for child maltreatment, domestic violence, and elder abuse have drawn on a series of theoretical frameworks over the past three decades, the connections between interventions and research are often uncertain and ambiguous.
Their development has involved trial-and-error experiments in which ideas gain prominence for a short time, only to fade when disappointing results are documented (Wolf, 1994).
Table 4-1 lists some major outcomes expected from social service interventions, many of which lack reliable measures.
Urbansocial was created by two singles looking for an online dating service where they could meet the sort of people they wanted to, like those you spot in the gym, at your local bar or on the way to work.These services include counseling and advocacy for victims of abuse; family and caregiver support programs; alternative living arrangements, including out-of-home placement for children, protective guardianship for abused elders, and shelters for battered women; educational programs for those at risk of abusing or being abused; intensive service programs to maintain families at risk of losing their child; and individual service programs in both family and placement settings.Social service interventions may consist of casework as well as therapeutic services designed to provide parenting education, child and family counseling, and family support.Nevertheless, the specific interventions discussed in this chapter have been identified by the field, and the evaluation literature has evolved from these services as they are identified.For this reason, the committee has retained these somewhat arbitrary distinctions.Six social service interventions for child maltreatment are reviewed in the sections that follow: (1) parenting practices and family support services, (2) school-based sexual abuse prevention, (3) child protective services investigation and casework, (4) intensive family preservation services, (5) child placement services, and (6) individualized service programs.The sections are keyed to the appendix tables that appear at the end of the chapter.As a result, similar interventions (such as parenting practice and family support services) may offer very different kinds of services depending on the resources available in the community and the extent to which the clients can gain access to available services.Some social service interventions (such as child protective services) are directly administered by state agencies; some services (such as parenting education and family support programs) are funded by government agencies but are provided by public or private services; other services (such as advocacy services for battered women) rely on grass roots support or local voluntary agencies.Such activities include parent support groups, parent education, home visiting, mental health, and other concrete social support and therapeutic services.Programs targeting children include skill-building around resistance to maltreatment, conflict management skills, and therapeutic interventions.