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Moreover, the unity of the letters is questioned by some scholars.First and Second Corinthians have garnered particular suspicion, with some scholars, among them Edgar J.However, such textual corruption is difficult to detect and even more so to verify, leaving little agreement as to the extent of the epistles' integrity.See also Radical Criticism, which maintains that the external evidence for attributing any of the letters to Paul is so weak, that it should be considered that all the letters appearing in the Marcion canon were written in Paul's name by members of the Marcionite Church and were afterwards edited and adopted by the Catholic Church. Holtzmann (1885) instead accepted the seven letters listed above, adding Philemon, 1 Thessalonians, and Philippians.An independently written narrative of Paul's life and ministry, found in the Acts of the Apostles, is used to determine the date, and possible authorship, of Pauline letters by locating their origin within the context of his life. Robinson argued that this captivity was Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea, while others have placed the captivity in Ephesus.For example, Paul mentions that he is a prisoner in his Epistle to Philemon 1:7; based on this statement, J. One difficulty with this position is the limited data available on Paul's historical setting, and this is especially true with the conclusion of the narrative of Acts prior to Paul's death.
Implicit references are quotation from Paul, especially indirect or unattributed, or expressing ideas and phrases that appear in his works.The church father Origen of Alexandria rejected the Pauline authorship of Hebrews, instead asserting that, although the ideas expressed in the letter were genuinely Pauline, the letter itself had actually been written by someone else.Scholars use a number of methods of historiography and higher criticism to determine whether a text is properly attributed to its author.On the other hand, lack of witness by ancient sources suggests a later date, an argument from silence.However, use of this line of reasoning is dangerous, because of the incompleteness of the historical record: many ancient texts are lost, damaged, or have been revised.There are two examples of pseudonymous letters written in Paul’s name apart from the New Testament epistles, the Epistle to the Laodiceans and 3 Corinthians.The Epistle to the Hebrews is actually anonymous, but it has been traditionally attributed to Paul.The primary methods used for Paul's letters are the following: This consists of what the author tells us about himself in the letter, either explicitly – the author clearly identifies himself – or implicitly – provides autobiographical details.This evidence is important in spite of its problems.This use or reference implies the material quoted was in existence at the time the external evidence was created.For example, the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians is named by Irenaeus in the mid-2nd century, as well as Justin Martyr and Ignatius of Antioch; it is impossible for this letter to have been written after their time.