Secondary masochism, in other words, is the relatively casual version, more akin to a charade, and most commentators are quick to point out its contrivedness.
Rejection is not desired by a primary masochist in quite the same sense as the feigned rejection occurring within a mutually consensual relationship—or even where the masochist happens to be the one having actual initiative power.
This article is about the general historical concept of sadomasochism.
For consenting partners engaging in sexual play behavior, see BDSM.
Pain and physical violence are not essential in Krafft-Ebing's conception, and he defined "masochism" (German Masochismus) entirely in terms of control.
Sigmund Freud, a psychoanalyst and a contemporary of Krafft-Ebing, noted that both were often found in the same individuals, and combined the two into a single dichotomous entity known as "sadomasochism" (German Sadomasochismus, often abbreviated as S&M or S/M).
These terms were first selected for identifying human behavioural phenomena and for the classification of psychological illnesses or deviant behaviour.
While the terms sadist and masochist refer respectively to one who enjoys giving or receiving pain, practitioners of sadomasochism may switch between activity and passivity.
The abbreviation S&M is often used for sadomasochism, although practitioners themselves normally remove the ampersand and use the acronym S-M or SM or S/M when written throughout the literature.
Masochism in men, however, was seen as a more significant aberration, contrary to the nature of male sexuality.
Freud doubted that masochism in men was ever a primary tendency, and speculated that it may exist only as a transformation of sadism.