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The 1829 Treaty of Adrianpolie replaced Greek rule with Russian. In 1859, Prince Alexander Cuza was elected ruler of a united Moldavia and Walachia; three years later, the country was renamed Romania (then spelled Rumania).Cuza attempted to redistribute land and improve the living conditions of the poor, but those policies were unpopular with the upper class; in 1866, Cuza was forced to resign and was replaced by Prince Carol.An exception is the Hungarian community in Transylvania, which has its own language and traditions and considers itself Hungarian.The Roma (Gypsies), who are scattered throughout the country, mostly in small camps on the outskirts of towns and cities, are in many ways culturally unassimilated. Romania is in southeastern Europe at the north end of the Balkan peninsula, bordering Ukraine and Moldova to the north, Hungary to the northwest, Serbia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.Today the Jewish population is estimated at less than 10,000.The German population has also decreased significantly.
In 1821, an uprising in Walachia against the Greek rulers ended in the execution of the Romanian leader Tudor Vladimirescu, which further fanned desires for independence.The land area is 91,699 square miles (237,500 square kilometers).The Carpathian Mountains cover about one-third of the country; they surround the Transylvanian Plateau and divide it from the other two main regions: Moldavia in the northeast and Walachia in the south.In the fourteenth century, the country adopted the Cyrillic alphabet, but it later reverted to Roman lettering.Magyar (the language of ethnic Hungarians) and German are spoken, as are Serbian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Czech, Bulgarian, and Turkish.Ninety percent of the people are Romanian, 7 percent are Hungarian, and 2 percent are Roma.The remainder is made up of Germans, Ukrainians, and others.Estimates of the Roma population range from 400,000 to one million; it is difficult to pinpoint because of the Roma's nomadic lifestyle.Before World War II, there was a large Jewish population, but almost 400,000 Jews were killed during the Nazi years, and many of the remaining Jews emigrated to Israel after the war.During Michael's reign, Romania maintained a degree of sovereignty, but after his death, the Turks again dominated the region.They ruled through Greek officials who abused their power to exploit the peasants.