Dating all estonia links

After the Brothers of the Sword suffered defeat at the Battle of Saule, the remaining Brothers were integrated into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order.

This meaning is retained in modern Baltic languages, where baltas (in Lithuanian) and balts (in Latvian) mean "white"., etc.

However the German philologist Georg Nesselmann in the middle of the 19th century substantiated the concept that Latvian, Lithuanian and Old Prussian belong to the same branch of the Indo-European languages, which he suggested to name as Baltic languages In the aftermath of the Livonian crusade, a crusader state officially named Terra Mariana, but also known as Livonia, was established in the territory of modern Latvia and Southern Estonia.

It was divided into four autonomous bishoprics and lands of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

The majority of the crusaders and clergy were German and remained influential in Estonia and most of Latvia until the first half of the 20th century – Baltic Germans formed the backbone of the local gentry, and German served both as a lingua franca and for record-keeping.

The Lithuanians were also targeted by the crusaders, however they were able to resist and formed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania some time before 1252. After the Union of Krewo in 1385 created a dynastic union between the two countries, they became ever more closely integrated and finally merged into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.

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